Glossary

Access Denied

User is denied access to a content item because their institution lacks a proper license or because simultaneous user limits specified in the license have been exceeded (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Access Denied: Limit_Exceeded

User is denied access to a content item because the simultaneous user limit for their institution's license would be exceeded (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Access Denied: No_License

User is denied access to a content item because the user or the user's institution does not have access rights under an agreement with the content provider (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Access_Method

A COUNTER attribute indicating whether the usage related to investigations and requests was generated by a human user browsing and searching a website (Regular) or by Text and Data Mining processes (TDM) (COUNTER Release 5 definition).
Examples: Regular, TDM

Access_Type

A COUNTER attribute used to report on the nature of access control restrictions, if any, placed on the content item at the time when the content item was accessed (COUNTER Release 5 definition).
Examples: Controlled, OA_Gold, OA_Delayed, Other_Free_to_Read

Aggregator

A type of content provider that hosts content from multiple publishers, delivers content direct to customers, and is paid for this service by customers (COUNTER definition).
Examples: EBSCOhost and ProQuest

Archive

Non-current collections of journals, books, articles or other publications that are preserved because of their continuing value and which are frequently made available by publishers as separate acquisitions (COUNTER definition).
Example: Oxford Journals Archive

Backfile

Journal content from earlier years which is generally made available separately as part of a backfile or archive collection

Book Access Denied (TR_B2)

A pre-set book filter of TR showing where users were denied access because simultaneous use (concurrency) licenses were exceeded, or their institution did not have a license for the database (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Book Report 1 (BR1)

Number of Successful Title Requests by Month and Title (COUNTER Release 4 report description)

Book Report 2 (BR2)

Number of Successful Section Requests by Month and Title (COUNTER Release 4 report description)

Book Report 3 (BR3)

Access Denied to Content Items by Month, Title and Category (COUNTER Release 4 report description)

Book Requests (Excluding “OA_Gold”) (TR_B1)

A pre-set book filter of TR showing full text activity for all content which is not Gold Open Access (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Book Usage by Access Type (TR_B3)

A pre-set book filter of TR showing all applicable metric types broken down by Access_Type (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

COUNTER code of practice

A code of practice that allows the usage of online information products and services to be measured in a credible, consistent and compatible way using vendor-generated data (https://www.projectcounter.org/code-of-practice-five-sections/abstract/)

COUNTER-compliant usage statistics

Usage statistics which conform to the criteria laid down in the current COUNTER Code of Practice (Release 5)

CSV format

Comma separated values - a file format for data tables suitable for import into spreadsheets such as Excel. One of the usage report formats prescribed by the COUNTER Code of Practice

Custom view

A JUSP report corresponding to the COUNTER standard view with reduced columns for ease of viewing, and information added for titles in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) and titles marked as core in KB+

Data_Type

Used in COUNTER Release 5 reports to identify the type of content.
Examples: Book, Database, Journal, Multimedia

Data visualisation

Interactive graphical representation of data offering an alternative way of viewing the usage data in a range of charts and graphs

Database Access Denied (DR_D2)

A pre-set Standard View of DR showing where users were denied access because simultaneous use (concurrency) licenses were exceeded, or their institution did not have a license for the database (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Database Master Report (DR)

A report that contains additional filters and breakdowns beyond those included in the standard COUNTER reports and are aggregated to the database level. (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Database Report 1

Total Searches, Result Clicks and Record Views by Month and Database (COUNTER Release 4 report description)

Database Report 2

Access Denied by Month, Database and Category (COUNTER Release 4 report description)

Database Search and Item Usage (DR_D1)

A pre-set Standard View of DR showing total item investigations and requests, as well as searches (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Frontfile

Journal content covered by current subscription as opposed to backfiles

Gateway

An intermediary online service which does not typically host the items requested by the user. The gateway will either refer the user to another site or service to download the item, or will request the item from another site or service and deliver it to the user within its own gateway environment. Items may be cached. (COUNTER definition).
Examples: SwetsWise, OCLC ECO

Gold open access

Free and immediate access upon publication, usually following payment of an article processing charge (APC) by an author or an author's funding agency

Host intermediary

An intermediary online service which stores items that can be downloaded by the user (COUNTER definition).
Examples: Ingenta, HighWire

Intermediary

A third party that offers access to journals/journal articles produced by publishers

Investigation

A category of COUNTER Release 5 metric types that represent a user accessing information related to a content item (i.e. an abstract or detailed descriptive metadata of an article) or a content item itself (i.e. full text of an article) (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Item

Collective term for content that is reported at a high level of granularity, e.g. a full-text article (original or a review of other published work), an abstract or digest of a full-text article, a sectional HTML page, supplementary material associated with a full-text article (e.g. a supplementary data set), or non-textual resources such as an image, a video, audio, a dataset, a piece of code, or a chemical structure or reaction (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Item Master Report (IR)

A COUNTER report that provides usage data at the item or item-component level (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Jisc band

Ten bands used to group further and higher education institutions, specialist colleges and research councils in the UK which is used as the basis for subscription fee payments for resources in the JISC Collections catalogue (http://www.jisc-collections.ac.uk/Help-and-information/JISC-Banding/)

Journal Access Denied (TR_J2)

A pre-set journal filter of TR showing all applicable metric types broken down by Access_Type (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Journal Article Requests (IR_A1)

A pre-set Standard View of IR showing total item requests for journal articles (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Journal report 1 (JR1)

Number of successful full-text article requests by month and journal (COUNTER Release 4 report description)

Journal report 1a (JR1a)

Number of successful full-text article requests from an archive by month and journal (COUNTER Release 4 report description)

Journal report 1 GOA (JR1 GOA)

Number of successful Gold Open Access full-text article requests by month and journal (COUNTER Release 4 report description)

Journal report 2 (JR2)

Access Denied to Full-Text Articles by Month, Journal and Category (COUNTER Release 4 report description)

Journal report 5 (JR5)

Number of successful full-text article requests by year of publication and journal (COUNTER Release 4 report description)

Journal Requests (Excluding OA_Gold) (TR_J1)

A pre-set journal filter of TR showing full text activity for all content which is not Gold Open Access (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Journal Requests by YOP (Excluding OA_Gold) (TR_J4)

A pre-set journal filter of TR breaking down the full text usage of non-Gold Open Access content by year of publication (YOP) (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Journal Usage by Access Type (TR_J3)

A pre-set journal filter of TR showing all applicable metric types broken down by Access_Type (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Knowledge Base Plus (KB+)

Knowledge Base+ (KB+) is a Jisc service that provides a centrally maintained knowledgebase of e-journal data and Electronic Resource Management (ERM) functionality, offering libraries a way to manage their e-resources more efficiently

Library participation agreement

An agreement which sets out the terms of the relationship between a library participating in JUSP and by Jisc, where the library authorises Jisc to collect COUNTER-compliant usage statistics on its behalf

Limit_Exceeded

A COUNTER Metric_Type. User is denied access to a content item because the simultaneous user limit for their institution’s license would be exceeded (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Master reports

Reports that contain additional filters and breakdowns beyond those included in the standard COUNTER Release 5 views. There are 4 master reports: Platform Master Report (PR), Database Master Report (DR), Title Master Report (TR) and Item Master Report (IR)

Metric Types (also Metric_Types)

An attribute of COUNTER usage that identifies the nature of the usage activity (COUNTER Release 5 definition).
Examples: Total_Requests, Searches_Regular, Limit_Exceeded, Unique_Title_Requests

Multimedia Item Requests (IR_M1)

A pre-set Standard View of IR showing total item requests for multimedia items (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

No_license

A COUNTER Metric_Type. User is denied access to a content item because the user or the user’s institution does not have access rights under an agreement with the vendor (COUNTER Release 5 definition). It is also a value for the 'access denied category' in COUNTER Release 4 JR2, BR3 and DB2 and appears in the spreadsheet reports as Access denied: content item not licenced

Non-COUNTER-compliant usage statistics

Usage statistics which do not conform to the criteria laid down in the current COUNTER Code of Practice

Open access (OA)

Making research publications freely available so anyone can benefit from reading and using research

Platform

An interface from an aggregator, publisher or other online service that delivers the content to the user and that counts and provides the COUNTER usage reports (COUNTER definition).

Platform Master Report (PR)

A Report that contains additional filters and breakdowns beyond those included in the standard COUNTER reports, and which are aggregated to the platform level (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Platform Report 1 (PR1)

(formerly Database Report 3) Total Searches, Result Clicks and Record Views by Month and Platform (COUNTER Release 4 description)

Platform Usage (PR_P1)

A pre-set Standard View of PR showing total and unique item requests, as well as platform searches (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Publisher participation agreement

An agreement which sets out the terms of the relationship between a publisher or supplier participating in JUSP and by Jisc. The supplier agrees to support JUSP to collect COUNTER-compliant usage statistics on behalf of its subscribers that also participate in JUSP.

Record Views

A successful request for a full database record or detailed metadata from a set of search results, from browsing the database, or from a click on another database record. A type of user activity shown as 'record_view' in the COUNTER Release 4 Database Report 1 (DB1) and Platform Report 1 (PR1).

Release 4 (R4)

Version of the COUNTER Code of Practice used between January 2014 to December 2018. Release 4 of the Code of Practice replaced both Release 3 of the Code of Practice for Journals and Databases and Release 1 of the Code of Practice for Books and Reference Works.

Release 5 (R5)

Current version of the COUNTER Code of Practice effective from January 2019. Replaced Release 4. https://www.projectcounter.org/code-of-practice-five-sections/abstract/

Reporting period

Date range selected for the report in whole months

Result Clicks

The number of interactions performed by the user when viewing database search results (searches are counted separately). This can include clicking on links to external resources such as link resolvers. A type of user activity shown as 'result_click' in the COUNTER Release 4 Database Report 1 (DB1) and Platform Report 1 (PR1)

SCONUL return

An annual statistical return completed by SCONUL members that includes questions relating to e-resource usage for the academic year 1 August-31 July

Searches (Regular)

Searches initiated by a user. A type of user activity shown as 'search_reg' in the COUNTER Release 4 Database Report 1 (DB1) and Platform Report 1 (PR1). Compare with Searches federated or automated

Searches federated or automated

A type of user activity shown as 'search_fed' in the COUNTER Release 4 Database Report 1 (DB1) and Platform Report 1 (PR1). Compare with Searches (Regular)

Searches_Automated (Automated Search)

A COUNTER Metric Type used to report searches conducted through a discovery service or by an automated search agent. (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Searches_Federated (Federated Search)

A COUNTER Metric Type used to report searches conducted through a federated search service. A federated search application that allows users to simultaneously search multiple databases hosted by the same or different vendors with a single query from a single user interface. The end user is not responsible for selecting the database being searched. (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Searches_Platform (Platform Search)

A COUNTER Metric Type used to report searches conducted on a platform. Note: Searches conducted against multiple databases on the platform will only be counted once. (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Searches_Regular (Regular Search)

A COUNTER Metric Type used to report on searches conducted by a user on a host where the user is in control over which databases can be searched. Note: If a search is conducted across multiple databases, each database searched can count that search. (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Section

The first level of subdivision of a book or reference work (COUNTER Release 4 and 5 definition).
Examples: chapter, entry

Section_Type

When content is accessed in chunks or sections, this attribute describes the nature of the content unit (COUNTER Release 5 definition).
Examples: Article, Book, Chapter, Other, Section

Standard view

A pre-defined version of a Master report, designed to meet the most common needs (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

SUSHI

Standardized Usage Statistics Harvesting Initiative - an international standard (Z39.93) that describes a method for automating the harvesting of reports (https://www.niso.org/standards-committees/sushi)

Title Master Report (TR)

A report that contains additional filters and breakdowns beyond those included in the standard COUNTER reports and are aggregated to publication title level rather than towards individual articles/chapters (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Total_Item_Investigations

A COUNTER Metric_Type that represents the number of times users accessed the content (i.e. full text) of an item, or information describing that item (i.e. an abstract) (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Total_Item_Requests

A COUNTER Metric_Type that represents the number of times users requested the full content (i.e. full text) of an item. Requests may take the form of viewing, downloading, emailing, or printing content, provided such actions can be tracked by the content provider’s server. (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

TSV

Tab Separated Values - a file format for data tables and one of the usage report formats prescribed by the COUNTER Code of Practice

Turnaway

Metric type in Release 4 for 'access denied category' in JR2, BR3 and DB2 which appears in COUNTER R4 spreadsheet reports as Access denied: concurrent/simultaneous user licence limit exceeded, defined as an unsuccessful log-in to an electronic service due to exceeding the simultaneous/concurrent user limit allowed by the licence (COUNTER Release 4 definition). Compare with Release 5 metric Access Denied: Limit_Exceeded

UK Access Management Federation

An organisation which manages access to online resources and services for education and research in the UK via Shibboleth (http://www.ukfederation.org.uk/)

Unique_Item_Investigations

A COUNTER Metric Type that represents the number of unique Content Items investigated in a user-session (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Unique_Item_ Requests

A COUNTER Metric Type that represents the number of unique content items investigated in a user-session (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Unique_Title_ Investigations

A COUNTER Metric Type that represents the number of unique titles investigated in a user-session (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

Unique_Title_Requests

A COUNTER Metric Type that represents the number of unique titles requested in a user session (COUNTER Release 5 definition)

YOP (Year of Publication)

Calendar year in which an article, item, issue, or volume is published. For the COUNTER YOP attribute, when the year of publication for the print differs from the online the print YOP is used